Fthiotides Thebes

Fthiotides Thebes belonged to ancient Achaia Fthiotis, one of the neighbors cities of ancient Thessaly. As far as the determination of position, the British traveler W.Leake based on the testimony of Strabo, the spotted the hill Castle on the northern edge of croquet field, the current plain of Almyros near the modern community Aketsi. The original place name of the city was Thebes where he gradually renamed Fthiotides Thebes to distinguish it from the Boeotian Thebes. At the end of the 3rd century BC gets in honor of Philip V, the name of Plovdiv and the early name of the city would be probably Prison. The city is bordered to the north by Feres, with Amfanes northeast, south to Alos, the southwest and west Pefma with Eretria and Farsalos. For the presence of the city in ancient times we learn from ancient sources and inscriptions of ancient coins of the 4th century BC, which indicate for example the word «Θηβαίος» and «Θηβαίος ἐξ΄ Άχαΐας Φθιώτιδος» to the lists of Pseudo-Scylax the Thebes among the cities as «Ἀχαιών πόλεις αἵδε» and the additional list as « εἰσί δε και ἅλλαις πόλεις Ἀχαιών » and inscriptions as «πόλις»..


The first organized habitation according to research in place Castro, performed in the late Neolithic period in the middle, ie 4th millennium BC . The name of the first city of Geometric times we are not known as the place name Thebes begins to appear in the mid-4th century. BC At a time of growing strongly during which built the city walls and the monumental public buildings that have survived until today.


The combination of the city's position, that is built on a hill which ensured defense practices, along with the economic boom of the 4th century BC, revealed as the first city of Achaia Fthiotida. In 302 BC cut its own currency, which depicted the figure of a hero of the Trojan war Protesilaos, king of the near post Prison. The city's economy was based on farming and the exploitation of the port of the Pyrasos, whose remains are still visible today. Port Pyrasos utilized by the Thessalians and Ferrat sole port of Thessaly in the 4th century. BC after Pagases were made at that time port of the Macedonians, this bothered the Macedonians, who in 217 p. X by Philip E 'destroy the city and sell its inhabitants as slaves. In the early 3rd century BC Demetrius the besieger unites areas of entrance of Pagasitikos bay and founded Demetrias, which is becoming an important international trading port, which competes with that of Fthiotides Thebes. In the 2nd century. BC Macedonians forcing traders of Thessaly to turn the port of Demetrias exclusively, which, as mentioned by Livy, flourished. This point is a turning point for the city of Thebes, which would thereafter be able to regain its former strength. Strabo visited the 1st century. BC the city and featuring as an obscure town on a hill with a port (Pyrasos) not working. The Thebes in the 2nd century. AD are a Roman city, which on the basis of archaeological data inhabited both within Kraft outside the city walls. The occupation continues to exist and to early Christian times, which is confirmed by the existence of an early Christian temple on the Acropolis. During the 5th century. AD the city was not abandoned but diminishes and gradually shifted to the port of Pyrasos, where he develops.


The excavations started in the early 20th century by A.. Arvanitopoulos after the D.R Theocharis, C. Hourmouziadis, P. Lazarides, E.. Deilaki and E. Kavogianni. Tenth 90s archaeologist V. Adrymi made a stratigraphic research in the city Acropolis to clarify the stages and the start of the occupation, which resulted in finding residues of habitation in the late Neolithic. From this research also emerged part of a depositor associated with the archaic temple of Athena Polias, where he found both the depositor and the temple bronze offerings, mainly jewelry, as a founding inscription from the ancient temple, which was operating at the exact point functioned the geometric sanctuary. Another important monument, west of the Acropolis, is the sanctuary of Asclepius, which is identified by an inscription and fragments of statues. Others worshiped gods mentioned at least inscriptions are Athena, Demeter Panachaiko of Protesilaos of Nike and Leukothea. Research was carried out in part of the western town cemetery. Significant time for research was the discovery of the city's ancient theater on the north side of the ancient city. Research to identify the ancient theater began in January 1992 and was based on information given by travelers of the 19th century. and in a survey plan of Fr. Stahlin 1906, which noted the position of the theater. Excavations continued until 1993, where they came to light eleven rows of stone seats, a total of fifteen, with six mid staircases that separated the central part of the hollow in seven tiers, like the entrances of lanes with retaining walls. Furthermore, the final phase of the investigation concerned the stage building of the theater. Based on data provided by the survey, the monument went through two phases, the Hellenistic and Roman, when turned into an arena for conducting duels and beast fights. Mobile findings came from the excavation area of the theater included signs, silver and bronze coins, marble architectural fragments, and marble statues, a silver cataplasm, fragments of glass bottles and ceramic parts as embossed lamps, two intact lamps, shells embossed stoopings of Megara, ceramic terra sigillata, etc. .All these mobile finds dating from the Hellenistic and Roman times.


Finally, the excavations of the ancient city revealed major parts of eastern and western cemetery, which occupied the area outside the city walls and around it, also giving findings mainly classical and Roman times and tombs of the Middle Bronze Age.


Bibliography

  • M.H. Hansen, T.H. Nielsen, «An inventory of archaic and classical poleis», Οxford, 2004.(σελ.717-718).
  • Β. Αδμύρη- Σισμάνη, «Φιώτιδες Θήβες» στο «Αρχαίες πόλεις Θεσσαλίας και περίοικων περιόχων», Αρχαιολογικό Ινστιτούτο Θεσσαλικών Σπουδών, Π.Ε.Δ Θεσσαλίας, 2012, (σελ.240-245).