The ancient Halos, initially said Homeric catalog of the New, while the word «’Αλευς» found in Demosthenes, in inscriptions and coins of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, as well as alternative «Αλούσιος» and «Άλιος» mainly in following texts. The Classical period is characterized as a "polis" of Demosthenes and located in Achaia in the coastal region. From Herodotus is known and the existence of a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Lafystios while Strabo called the city « ο Άλος», «Άλος Αχαϊκή»and «Χλίος».
The first habitation in ancient Messini dating from the upper Paleolithic period (26000-9000 BC). Large growth has throughout the course of the Bronze Age from 3200 up to 1050 BC, giving a number of major architectural samples such as the EH Hall in Akrovitika the Middle Helladic settlement in wool and Mycenaean palace of Nestor at Upper Englianos
Ancient sources indicate that Elis was a classical settlement established in a synoicism that occurred in 471 BC. However, archaeological excavations demonstrate that a small settlement existed here before this time. A limited number of Bronze Age and Iron Age burials have been found in and around the agora. In the same area, 6th century BC architectural terracotta fragments and an inscribed bronze legal inscription attest to activity during the Archaic period as well. Apparently, there were either small temples or public buildings near the later agora. To be sure, most of the material at Elis is classical and later.
Heraia in Arcadia
Our knowledge of the ancient city of Heraia in Arcadia remains fragmented. Most of the information we get for this ancient city are coming from historical narratives and tours, rather than from results of excavation works. Pausanias in his Arcadian tours (8.26.1-4) was the first to refer to the ancient city of Heraia. At the dawn of the 19th century Martin Leake followed Pausanias travelogue. Approximately a century later, in 1930 Alexander Filadelpheus directed the only excavation project that has been conducted until today
Mantinea was established between 550-450 B.C.E. within a fertile valley of northeastern Arcadia. The literary and archaeological evidence do not permit a more conclusive foundation date. Mantinea was twice destroyed and rebuilt. First by a Spartan invasion in 385 B.C.E. and later by the Macedonians in 222 B.C.E. The Spartan destruction instigated a forced depopulation of Mantinea and relocation of its citizens to surrounding villages. According to Xenophon, the fortification walls and many of the buildings were deliberately demolished. Mantinea was reestablished in a synoicism fifteen years later after the Battle of Leuctra.
Ochestos was famous in antiquity for its important sanctuary of Poseidon. Reference to the sanctuary appears in many literary sources, including Homer, Pindar, Stabo, and Pausanias (Schachter 1986). The ancient texts roughly describe a specific ceremony that was used to choose the most appropriate young horses to drag chariots. Recent evidence show that this ceremony was adopted from earlier Mycenaean traditions, when chariots were considered important in the battlefields (Teffeller 2001).
Town of Stymfalos is the northeastern part of the Peloponnese. The local name "Stymphalos" is primarily found in the Pausanias and Homer as «Στύμφηλος». Near the town there is the lake as far Stymfalia or "Stymfilis" whose scope varies. Also, according to the sources Stymphalos was a member of Arcadian Confederacy and possibly the Peloponnesian Alliance. As regards archaeological remains has identified a classical-Hellenistic cemetery in the southwest of the city, with Doric architectural, south an amphitheatrical area with seating, which suggests the existence of a theater, the Acropolis, which includes three churches, one possibly dedicated to Athena Polias from which samples have late Archaic and Classical period.
Tegea is situated within a large fertile plain in central Arcadia at elevations ranging from 660-675 masl. The terrain is pocketed by rivers and streams originating from the surrounding mountains. The well-watered landscape is ideal for agriculture, which predominates today. A scattering of farming villages and industrial installations are dispersed throughout. The most prominent of these within or close to the ancient settlement are Episkopi, Alea, and Stadio.
Fthiotides Thebes belonged to ancient Achaia Fthiotis, one of the neighbors cities of ancient Thessaly. As far as the determination of position, the British traveler W.Leake based on the testimony of Strabo, the spotted the hill Castle on the northern edge of croquet field, the current plain of Almyros near the modern community Aketsi. The original place name of the city was Thebes where he gradually renamed Fthiotides Thebes to distinguish it from the Boeotian Thebes.